systematic racism

Bonnie Kerness: Pioneer in the Struggle Against Solitary Confinement

November 8, 2012  by Solitary Watch Guest Author Lance Tapley

In 1986 Ojore Lutalo, a black revolutionary in the Trenton State Prison — now the New Jersey State Prison — wrote to Bonnie Kerness’s American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) office in Newark. His letter described the extreme isolation and other brutalities in the prison’s Management Control Unit, which he called a “prison within a prison.”

“I could not believe what he was telling me” about the MCU, she says. She reacted by becoming “this lunatic white lady” calling New Jersey corrections officials about Lutalo.

Kerness immediately went to work trying to stop MCU guards from harassing prisoners by waking them at 1 a.m. to make them strip in front of snarling dogs leaping for their genitals — to arbitrarily have them switch cells. She got this practice stopped.

Lutalo’s letter also began to open her eyes to the torture of solitary confinement, which in the mid-1980s was just starting to spread across the country as a mass penological practice. Coordinator of the AFSC’s national Prison Watch Project, Kerness had worked on prison issues since the mid-1970s. Now she became an anti-solitary-confinement activist. In 2012, she has been one longer and more consistently than, possibly, anyone else.

STOLEN LIVES: Killed By Law Enforcement (with downloadable pdf lists and photos)

submit a case of someone killed by law enforcement  HERE

 photos from 1990's

 Stolen Lives LIST (updated Oct 2012)

1999 Stolen Lives Project book (Part 1 and Part 2): descriptions, killed by law enforcement

Photos and descriptions added in 2006


People Killed by Law Enforcement

in U.S. 1990's to 2012 [incomplete list including many unidentified people killed by law enforcement]


ALABAMA
King Casby
Clever Craig
Bobby Dancy
Lorenzo Ingram, Sr.
Calvin Moore
Donald Nabors
Johnie Kamahi Warren
Carlos Williams
Walter Williams, Jr.


ALASKA
Randall Clevenger
Terrence L. Cloyd
Conn Wayne Duncan
Joseph Gannon
Jay Allen Johnson
Frederick Jones
Joseph Marchetti
Adrian Spindler
Shane Tasi
Cassel Williams


ARIZONA
Ernest “Marty” Atencio
Abdiel Burgueno, Jr.
Robert Clermont
Nicholas Contreraz
Lawrence Davies
Troy Edward Davis
Michael Federici
Keith Graff
Glen Alton Haring
Michael Johnson
J.R. Kvernes
Donald Lininger
John Loxas
Amber Maderos
Lilly Maderos
Lisa Maderos
Mario Albert Madrigal
Tashia Patton
Antonio Renteria
Jose Benito Saenz
Ernie Salas
Milton Salazar
William Sershon
Harold Shover, Jr.
Richard Snow
Janet Zuelzke

ARKANSAS
Angelo Clark
Billy Charles Hyde
Marvin Glenn Johnson
Jerry Kane
Joe Kane
Marcus Lovell
Othel June Striplin


CALIFORNIA
Derrick Abernathy
Joel Mathew Acevedo
Alberto Acosta Jr
Alexander Acosta
Deshawn Adams
Anthony Aguilar
Armando Aguilar
John Aguilera
Phillip Daniel Aguilar
Jihad Alim Akbar
Frank Filomeno Alejo
Julian Alexander
Jerriel Da'Shawn Allen
Eddie R. Alvarado
Valeria Alvarado
Edgar Alvarez
Emmanuel Alvarez
Isaias Alvarez
Emiliano Amaya
Susanne Antuna
Carlos Arevalo
Abdul Arian
Manuel Armenta
Gerardo Arvallo
Andres Avila
Marco Ernesto Avila
Julio Ayala
Ricardo Badillo
Ronald Ball
Evaristo Barajas
Leroy Barnes Jr
Anton Barrett Sr
Edgar Battad
Victor Becerril
Roderick Lee Bertolette
Benjamin Bittner
Jason Bitz
Antonio Bland
Alan Blueford Jr
Zaim Bojcic
Glen Boldware
Bryan Bombela
Ronald Boone
Aaron Borden
Stephen Bours
Cammerin Boyd
Ronald Brazier
Charles Breed
Tyler Brehm
Dyron Brewer
Kelvin Brooks
Andre Brown
Luther Brown Jr
Raheim Brown
Robert Brown
Deandre Brunston
Vinh Bui
Stephen Bullock
Karapet Bulmadzhyan
Christopher Arrion Burgess
Mark William Burke
Donnie Butler
Michael Byoune
Marcella Byrd
Arturo Cabrales
Richard Cabrales
Pedro Calderon
Homero Campos
Katrina Campos
Andrew Caprio
Alonso Cardenas
Rodolfo Cardenas
Rudy Cardenas
Daniel Carlon
James Louis Carrel
Jesse Carrizales
Jerome Carter
Fernando Casares
Carlos Casillas Fernandez
Ernesto Castaneda
Juan Castellanos
Carlos Castillo
Julian Celaya
Jeremiah Chass
Mohammad Usman Chaudhry
Javier Chavez
Yi Tzu Chen
Michael Cho
Christian Cobian
Avery Cody, Jr
Darrick Collins
Christopher Coronel
Zachary Champommier
Elaine Coleman
Peter Contreras
Zachary Cooke
Khiel Coppin
Joe Casto Corrales
Fernando Cortez
Martin F. Cotton II
Maurice Leroy Cox
David Cross
Caesar Cruz
Pedro Santa Cruz
Gabriel Cuevas-Muldenado
Jonathan Cuevas
Richard Dale
James Davis
Anita Delgado
Richard DeSantis
Antonio Diaz
Manuel Angel Diaz
Qazi Tiensinh Do
Tony Dominquez
Atilano Doporto
Reginald Doucert Jr
Oran Eugene Douglas III
Ernest Duenez, Jr
Kathleen Eklund
Jazmyne Eng
Alejandro Erazo
Noe Escobar Reyes
Rick Escobedo
Alfred Farrar
Durrell Feaster
Carlos Fernandez
Pedro Fernandez
Josh Ferreira
Joaquin Figuerora
Rod Fiorini
Jaime Flores
Jose Flores
Detrick Ford
Justin Ford
Eric Daniel Foster
Victoria Fox
Dnary Fowler
Eddie Franco
Mallard Frazier
John Fulchiero
Derrick Gaines
Annette Garcia
Daniel Garcia
Erik Garcia
Ezequiel Garcia
Israel Garcia
Julio Garcia
Mark Garcia
Nahun Garcia
Omar Garcia
Victor Garcia
Marvin Gardner
Dale Garrett
Robert Garth
Ralph Peter Gawor
Ryan George
Glennel Givens
Christopher Glass
Kenneth Gomez
Marco Gomez
Edgar Gonzalez
Jaime Gonzales
Julien Gonzalez
Xavier Gonzalez-Torres
Carol Anne Gotbaum
John Goudeaux
Lonnie Graham
Shurron Grant
Oscar Grant
Ilda Grasso
Mark Gregg
Cary James Grimé
Terry Grinner Jr
Lejoy Grissom
Howard Gross
Delfino Guerrero
Efrain Lara Gutierrez
Luis Guttierez
Troy Guido
Arturo Guzman
Demetre Omar Hall
Jess Hamilton
Donald Handy
Kenneth Harding Jr
Richey Harvey
Walter Heller
Vong Yang Her
Carlos Heredia Jr
Angel Farias Hernandez
Hector Hernandez
Steven Hernandez
Ramel Henderson
Robert Henning
Jesus Juan Hernandez-Cazares
Anastasio Hernandez Rojas
Justin Hertl
Charles Blair Hill
Stephen Clancy Hill
Stephen Paul Hirschfield
Craig Holden
Joshua Alva Hollander
Jonni Kiyoshi Honda
Jared Huey
Dale Hughes
Richard Hughes
Tyrone Hughes
Leopoldo Huizar
Wilford Hunton
Eloy Infante-Toscano
Christopher Jackson
Ezequiel Jacobo
Mario Jaramillo
Lee Jefferson
Dashonnon Jennings
Jorge Jimenez
Jose Jimenez
Frank Johnson
Derrick Jones
Eric Jones
David Jordan
Joseph Frank Kennedy
Allen Kephart
Douglas Kim
Susie Young Kim
Garland King
Gary King
Kenneth King
Garmik Kirakosian
Barry Martin Koeningsberg
Chyraphon Komvongsa
Rene LaCentra
Kamal Lal
Khalid Lanier
Robert LaRue
Jennifer LeBlanc
Albert Mike Leday Jr
Daniel Leon
Kwang Lee
Michael Lee
Oliver Lefiti
Samual Liaw
Eric Lewis Liebowitz
Reginald Andre Linthicum
Darrell Logan
Manuel Loggins
Roberto Lombana
Jessie Long
Ismael Lopez
Mariano Lopez Fernandez
Johnny Lozoya
Dexter Luckett
William Lusk
Andrew MacEarchern
Brian Macias
Pete Carlos Madrid
Carl Maggiorini, Jr.
Michael Maguire
Eric Mahoney
Eric Mandell
Dyron Mandell Brewer
Joshua Maravilla
Mitchell Marien
Frank Martinez
Gabriel Martinez
Gonzalo Martinez
Reynaldo Quintero Martinez
Samuel Martinez
Leonel Mateos
Clifford Paul Maxwell
Cedric May
Kendraey McCall
Shawn McCoy
Kendrec McDade
Ashley McDonald
Moses McDowell
Brent McKinney
David McMahon
Terrance Mearis
Daniel Mendoza
Cecil Menifield
Douglas Merjil
Peter Mestler
Mark Miles
Jose Millan
Philip Miller
Maurice Milligan
Lovelle Mixon
Francisco Mondragon-Saucedo
Jose Monteon Jr
Bryan Moore
Cheri Lyn Moore
Jesse Moore
Andrew Moppin
Fred Moraga
Oscar Morales
Christopher Moreno
Donovan Morris
Roketi Mosesue
Lazaro Muniz
Johnnie Nakao
Terry Wayne Nash
Tom Neville
Jacob Newmaker
Michael Nida
Julian Nolasco
Hai Nguyen
Juan Nunez
Jorge Ocon
Samuel Om
Carlos Ornelas
Isaac Ornelas
Arturo Ortega
Jesucita Ortega
Ruben Walton Ortega
Victor Ortega
Javier Ortiz
Martin Osuna-Aguilar
Albert Ray Owens
Roberto Padilla
Joel Perales
Jose Carlos Perez-Hernandez
Roman Gallius Pierson
Woodrow Player III
Richard Poccia
Albert Polencia
Brownie Polk
Christian Portillo
Alfred Pouliot
Mathew Powell
Pralith Pralourng
Alex Roman Quintanilla
William Quiros Jr
Arthur Jarvis Raleigh
Cesar Ramirez
James Ramirez
Manuel Ramirez
Ignacio Rangel Gonzalez
Gordon Rauch
DeOnte Rawlings
Andres Raya
Raul Castillo Razo
Pedro Renteria
Randy Reeves
Francisco Reyes
Jamie Reyes
Luciano Reyes
Earl Rhodes
Trevion Richard
Sammie Richardson
John Rico
Fermin Rincon
Carlos Rivera
Edwin Rivera
James Earl Rivera, Jr.
Lejon Robins
Lydia Rodriguez
Peter Rodriguez
Roberto Rodriguez
Steve Rodriguez
Victoria Roger-Vasselin
Hannah Rogers-Grippi
Sergio Rojas
Michael Robert Rosa
Mario Romero
Glenn Rose
Hernan Rubalcaba
Javier Joseph Rueda
Gustavus Rugley
Joshua Russell
Maria Ruvalcaba
Kim Saelio
Ventura Saenz
Sergio Salazar
Charles Salinas
Luis Salinas
Noel Salinas
Abraham Sanchez
Albert Sanchez
Arthur Sanchez
Luis Sanchez
Miguel Sanchez Jr
Rodney Sandberg
Michael Lewis Sanders
Julio Sandoval
Byron San Jose
Bradford Sarten
Guillermo Saucedo
Greg Saulsbury
Jack Schlesinger
Sergio Sedillo
David Sequioa
Oscar Sermeno
Juan Serna
Richard Sharp
Mohammed Shah
Maurice Shephard
Christopher Shull
Socrates Siqueros
Derrick Sites
Cesar Silva
Jose Soloro
Lawrence Smith
Marcus Smith
Ernesto Donald Smith
Naser Solis
Frank Soliz
Sinn Sor
Martin Soriano
Saul Soriano
Jaden Edward Soto
Idriss Stelley
OC Deputy Terry Stepp
Joshua Stephenson
Kami Stevens
Peter Stewart

Vote YES on Prop 36: Amend the Three Strikes Law

America's prison problem (Great VIDEO)

Why does the US put so many people behind bars and what lies behind California's new push for leniency?

last Modified: 01 Nov 2012 14:40

By filmmakers Michael Montgomery and Monica Lam

The US locks up more people than any other country in the world, spending over $80billion each year to keep some two million prisoners behind bars. Over the past three decades, tough sentencing laws have contributed to a doubling of the country's prison population, with laws commonly known as 'three strikes and you're out' mandating life sentences for a wide range of crimes.

But a clear sign that Americans are rethinking crime and punishment is a voter's initiative on California's November ballot called Proposition 36 that seeks to reform the state's three-strikes law. Some 27 states have three-strikes laws patterned after California's version, which was one of the first to be enacted in the country.

Since it was passed in 1994, nearly 9,000 felons have been convicted in California under the law.

One of them is Norman Williams, a 49-year-old African-American man who was a crack addict living on the streets. He was convicted of burglarising an empty home and later stealing an armload of tools from an art studio. His third strike: filching a jack from a tow truck in Long Beach. His fate sealed under California's three-strikes law, Williams was sent to a maximum security prison [for a life sentence] alongside murderers, rapists and other violent criminals.

"I never wanted to do my whole life in prison. Nobody wants to be caged like that," Williams says.

Williams was lucky. After 13 years behind bars, his case was reviewed by a judge and he was released. He is one of about two dozen 'three strikers' who have won sentence reductions through the work of a Stanford University law clinic founded by Michael Romano. In Williams' case, the prosecutor actually agreed that the original sentence was too harsh. An idea emerged from Romano's work: Why not draft a ballot initiative to ensure that sentences like Williams' will not be repeated?

"When people originally passed the three-strikes law in 1994 the campaigns were about keeping serious and violent murderers, child molesters in prison for the rest of their lives," Romano says. "I think that's what people want and are kind of shocked to hear that people have been sentenced to life for petty theft."

CHANTS Against Police Brutality! (pg10 Days of Action 2012 booklet)

CHANTS

No Justice!  No Peace! 'Til the cops are off of OUR streets!

Ain't No Power like the Power of the People 'Cause the Power of the People Don't Stop!

2-4-6-8
Stop the Violence!  Stop the Hate!
2-4-6-8
Smash the Police State!

Hey Hey! Ho Ho!
Killer Cops Have Got To GO!

(chanted at Eureka City Hall)
Rotten Cops! Rotten Law!
It all starts at City Hall

Humboldt Sheriff, EPD
Stop Police Brutality!

Tear Down the Prisons and the Police Stations!
We don't want Incarceration!

Fuck the Cops
We Don't Need 'Em
All we want is total Freedom!

L.I.V.E. against Police Brutality

Stop Police Brutality:  It HURTS!
Stop Police Brutality: It KILLS!
(call and response)

2-4-6-8
Smash [or Stop] the Police State
3-5-7-9
Cops Do the Real CRIME

See actual page10 of 2012 booklet attached or if you click on READ MORE

Please DON’T vote in favor of Prop 34 to end California’s death penalty, from Verbena Lea Oct 2012

feedback welcome to copwatchrwc@riseup.net, especially if you've read the various statements!  ~Verbena of RedwoodCurtain CopWatch

I know that this might be difficult for people to understand, but I am urging you not to vote for Prop 34, the Savings, Accountability, and Full Enforcement for California Act (SAFE California Act).  Never would I believe that I would stand in the way of abolishing the death penalty, but as with many propositions, bills, and ballot measures brought to the people in the past, with promising names (i.e. the horrendous and misleading "Victim's Rights Bill", Prop 9 in 2008) or the appearance of good ideas, it is necessary to look deeper- WHO created the bill?  WHO is advocating for it?  WHO is against it?  WHY?  Propositions put in petitions and on our ballots are not always as simple or righteous as they sound.

I have been talking some with people who have worked with prisoners and have fought for years against the racist, classist, unjust, and cruel jail and prison system of the U.S.- which has about 2.3 million people captured in its cages, and many more under the constant scrutiny and control of the injustice system (run by some of the worst crooks/criminals on Earth). And this does not account for the U.S. immigration detention centers, holding thousands of captives.  So, I sought out some opinions from people I trust, especially after speaking with a local woman who has been doing prisoner support and prison abolition work, and she was not excited about Prop 34. The large majority of people on death row in CA, apparently are not in favor either.  That says a lot.

It is my strong opinion, now, that we should not allow Prop 34 to pass.  And we should get busy creating a better ballot measure to end the death penalty, which puts funding in a just direction for those so harmed by the injustice system.


Below are four writings from prisoners on Death Row in San Quentin.  One of the writers, Kevin Cooper is an outspoken artist, writer, prisoner who was framed (like many black men) years ago for murder and has been fighting to be freed from prison and from death row for many years.  I think he raises important questions to examine... WHY were death row inmates never consulted by the proponents of this Act?  Who are the proponents?

PLEASE READ the statement from the Campaign to End the Death Penalty as to why it "cannot add its name to the list of organizations endorsing the California SAFE Act."   Here is the link:
http://www.nodeathpenalty.org/organizing-updates/october-25-2012-organizing-update/cedp-statement-california-safe-act

 

It is a matter of innocence, not economics

October 1, 2012

by Jarvis Jay Masters (on San Quentin's Death Row)

Please DON’T vote in favor of “The SAFE California Act” to end California’s death penalty.

You need to know that your vote for this act would throw away the key for all the innocent men and women on death row and, instead, sentence all prisoners on death row to spend the rest of their lives in prison without the possibility of parole and without effective legal representation.

The way I see it is, behind the scenes, the “Act” has been to cast Jeannie Woodford, former prison guard, former San Quentin warden, former director of California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, and current director of Death Penalty Focus, an organization striving to abolish the death penalty, to build support for this “Act” from, among others, the prison guards union.

Please DON’T vote in favor of “The SAFE California Act” to end California’s death penalty.

I am not the first to say how deeply troubling it is to see this initiative being advocated for by a woman who presided over state executions without ever offering an OPEN apology.

There is something even more troubling about depending on a flawed prison system and its employees to go ahead and make this decision, when the men and women at risk have never been asked for our two cents about matters that affect our life and death.  PLEASE KEEP READING!

Tragedy of US police training by Israeli companies

It is almost as though a mass psychosis has taken over American law enforcement, every face a potential “bin Laden,” every minor confrontation solved only with volleys of gunfire.

An Occupy Wall Street protester is arrested by New York City police officers after the protesters were evicted from Succotti Park November 15, 2011 in New York. Occupy Wall Street protester is arrested by New York City police officers after the protesters were evicted from Zuccotti Park November 15, 2011 in New York.

Tragedy of US police training by Israeli companies
Mon Sep 24, 2012   By Gordon Duff

What had once been police is how a “hodge-podge” thousands of agencies, each one falling like dominoes, unable to resist offers of advanced military weapons, offers of “informal discretionary funding” (bribes) and quickly degenerating into an army of occupation."

During the Bush administration, Israeli-American dual citizen and Director of Homeland Security Chertoff mandated that American police forces be trained by Israeli groups in crowd control, counter-terrorism and intelligence gathering.

Since that time, shootings of unarmed civilians has gone up 500%, attacks on legal political protests by police have become a scandal and huge stockpiles of ammunition and military heavy weaponry have been distributed to law enforcement groups in every region of America, both local and federally controlled.

Additionally, Army Chief of Staff General Odierno has offered the use of the US Army, an offer published in the Council on Foreign Relations journal, Foreign Affairs, to suppress political dissent by force, a violation of his oath of office and, quite literally, an act of conspiracy against the sovereignty of the US and State governments.

The current problem with law enforcement and the diminishment of legal rights of Americans is now at levels that cannot be ignored any longer. It has become obvious to an ever increasing number of Americans that something is in the works, perhaps a political coup or a military take-over.

Years ago such things were done behind closed doors, now it seems it can be done in the open, just like shooting down presidents, killing senators in plane crashes or blowing up office buildings.

Instability in the United States is very real. With Mitt Romney planning a new war while cutting taxes for the rich, one in four Americans is suffering from malnutrition and one in five children live with constant hunger in a nation that spends billions of dollars to subsidize and store excess food. There is now a legitimate concern that armed law enforcement officers, numbering over 800,000, with constables and auxiliaries taking that number over 1 million, foreign-led criminal organizations may systematically be gaining control of America in a form of “rot from within.”


It doesn’t take a genius to track down the money behind half of America’s politicians to their source, bank fraud, narcotics, gun running, medical scams and the oil monopoly. This is the new organized crime.

What had once been police is how a “hodge-podge” thousands of agencies, each one falling like dominoes, unable to resist offers of advanced military weapons, offers of “informal discretionary funding” (bribes) and quickly degenerating into an army of occupation.

Key to this has been Israeli training, sending into America so-called experts who have long operated in an environment where killing civilians under cover of a rigged racist system of government has been official policy for over six decades.

Israel’s militarized police are trained to violate human rights on a daily basis. 116 UN resolutions have been filed and passed by majority vote by the General Assembly citing them with apartheid and genocide, exactly the description of America that Mitt Romney and his friends are offering America.

Police killings

In my own town recently, a police officer shot and killed an Iraq War veteran while the man was asleep. The officer had been called to the home because the family was concerned about their son who was having trouble adjusting.

They let the officer in the house, and rather than waking the sleeping veteran, the officer simply emptied his pistol into the man’s body.
I just did a Google search of the phrase: “police shoot unarmed man” and got 1,610,000 results.

Vallejo Police Murdered Mario Romero; They Opened Fire On Him In His Car Sunday Morning

Rev. Floyd D. Harris Jr National President of The National Network In Action, a civil and human rights organization, will be holding a Press Conference and a March in front of the Vallejo Police Department. In regards to the recent brutal murder of Mr. Mario Romero by the Vallejo Police Department early Sunday morning [Sept 2, 2012].
There were two young men whom police confronted. Witnesses reported that Mr. Romero never got out of his car when officers opened fire, shooting 30 times into the car reported by witness.  There were no reports of Mr. Romero shooting at the Vallejo Police. The minority community is taking a stand for justice against the ROGUE COPS of the Vallejo Police. There has been 7 officer-involved shootings and 5 of the shootings have been fatal. The Vallejo Police don’t have the right to be the JUDGE, JURY AND EXECUTIONER.

The Framing of Kevin Cooper, on San Quentin’s Death Row [with VIDEO]

The Framing of Kevin Cooper, on San Quentin’s Death Row -- An interview with J. Patrick O’Connor
By Hans Bennett, Prison Radio

On February 20, San Quentin Prison (just North of San Francisco) was the site of a groundbreaking "Occupy San Quentin" demonstration linking Occupy Wall Street with the anti-prison movement. Inside on San Quentin’s death row is a man named Kevin Cooper, whose case for innocence is widely considered to be one of the most compelling today. Indeed, when the Ninth Circuit Court ruled against Cooper’s final appeal in 2009, Judge William A. Fletcher wrote in his 101 page dissenting opinion that “the State of California may be about to execute an innocent man.”

Kevin Cooper’s controversial 1985 conviction and death sentence is the subject of a new book by veteran journalist J. Patrick O’Connor entitled, Scapegoat: The Chino Hills Murders and The Framing of Kevin Cooper. O’Connor is the editor of www.crimemagazine.com and the author of The Framing of Mumia Abu-Jamal (Lawrence Hill, 2008). He has previously worked as a reporter for UPI, editor of Cincinnati Magazine, associate editor of TV Guide, and editor and publisher of the Kansas City New Times.

Tues, March 6th: Rallying Against the World's Largest Jail System, LA County

The threat of jail expansion comes amidst numerous lawsuits surrounding allegations of systematic abuse and torture in LA’s jails as well as numerous reports and expert opinions recommending against the rampant misuse of incarceration in the county. ...  Twenty counties in California have applied for a total of  $1,102,855,803 including a $100 million application from LA County. ...

UPRISING! Why People Are Rioting In Britain (August 13, 2011)

This article should be read after: Rage at the police hits the streets of north London

Police Brutality and Tory Attacks Caused the Riots

The riots that swept large parts of London, Birmingham, Liverpool and Bristol last night are an explosion of bitterness and rage.

This is what happens in a society of deep and growing inequality, where there are great pools of unemployment and poverty, where there is systematic police harassment and racism, and where many young people feel they have no future.

Just as with the student protests last year, it is the “lost generation” created by the Tories who are at the centre of these struggles—although many older people were also involved.

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